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欧宝app|历史上的塞尔维亚——塞族的抗争和外族的侵略



发布日期:2021-03-07 01:34:02 发布者:Admin5  点击率:

The recent words of Serbian President Vučić touched the hearts of Chinese netizens-the EU cannot be trusted, and the only ally we can trust is China. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China also said that "China will always stand with Serbia." What has this China's biggest ally in Europe experienced in history, and what made China and Serbia have such a profound war friendship? This article will talk about it.

塞尔维亚总统武契奇(Vučić)的最新言论打动了中国网民的心,欧盟是不可信任的,而我们唯一可以信任的盟友是中国。中国外交部还表示,“中国将永远与塞尔维亚站在一起”。这个欧洲历史上最大的盟友经历了什么?是什么使中国和塞尔维亚之间建立了如此深刻的战争友谊?本文将对此进行讨论。

Serbia accounts for the overwhelming majority of ethnic groups, and Serbs have a history of ups and downs. The Serbs were originally a Slavs. They came to Serbia in the 8th century and began to believe in the Orthodox Church under the influence of the Byzantine Empire. To this day, Serbs have a dream of Greater Serbia, which originated from here.

塞尔维亚占绝大多数,塞族人有起有落的历史。塞尔维亚人最初是斯拉夫人。他们于8世纪来到塞尔维亚,并在拜占庭帝国的影响下开始信仰东正教。直到今天,塞尔维亚人都梦想着从这里开始的大塞尔维亚。

There is a book in Serbia called "Our Creation and Effort". I have to say that creation and hard work are indeed the two most important qualities of Serbians. Two hundred years after coming to the Balkans, Serbia completely separated from Bulgaria's control and achieved independence. The great monarch Karoni Milovich established a country named "Serbia" for the first time in the tenth century. The prelude to the dream of the Great Serbia in the Middle Ages slowly opened.

塞尔维亚有一本书叫做“我们的创造与努力”。我不得不说,创造力和努力工作确实是塞尔维亚人的两个最重要的素质。来到巴尔干地区200年后,塞尔维亚完全脱离了保加利亚的控制,实现了独立。伟大的君主卡罗尼·米洛维奇(Karoni Milovich)于10世纪首次建立了一个名为“塞尔维亚”的国家。中世纪大塞尔维亚梦的序幕逐渐拉开。

"When the Serbs acquire a piece of territory, they will build and work, and in the end they will get the Serbia that the Serbs deserve." Under the guidance of this sentence that looks like a philosophical poem, the Nemanya Dynasty has arrived. ——The sentence just now proved to be a sentence often said by the Serbs during the Nimanya Dynasty. In 1190, Stefan Nimanya relied on his own strength to force the once invincible Great Byzantium to recognize Serbia's independence. A few years later, the Nimanya dynasty became king. Remember the Bulgarian empire that invaded Serbia in the middle of the ninth century? In 1330, the Serbian leader Stefan Uros II personally led his army to defeat the Bulgarian Empire’s successor to the Second Bulgarian Empire, and relied on the deterrence of force to make the Bulgarian Empire a subject of Serbia. Czar Stefan Duchamp, who came to power in 1331, pushed Greater Serbia to the extreme. Today, history students from all over the world are studying Duchamp's Code.

“当塞族获得一块领土时,他们将建设和工作,最终他们将获得塞族应得的塞尔维亚。”在这首似哲学诗的句子的指导下,Nemanya王朝到来了。 -这句话被证明是在尼曼亚王朝时期塞尔维亚人经常说的一句话。 1190年,斯蒂芬·尼曼亚(Stefan Nimanya)依靠自己的力量迫使曾经无敌的大拜占庭(Big Byzantium)承认塞尔维亚的独立。几年后,尼曼亚王朝成为国王。还记得九世纪中叶入侵塞尔维亚的保加利亚帝国吗? 1330年,塞尔维亚领导人斯特凡·乌罗斯二世亲自率军击败了保加利亚帝国的第二保加利亚帝国的继任者,并依靠武力威慑使保加利亚帝国成为塞尔维亚的臣民。沙皇斯特凡·杜尚(Czar Stefan Duchamp)于1331年上台,将大塞尔维亚推向了极端。今天,来自世界各地的历史学生正在学习杜尚的《法典》。

The Serbs, who ruled the Balkans for three centuries, soon met the crazy Muslims with the "Great Ottoman Dream"-Ottoman Turkey. )" at the beginning. Beginning with the Battle of Kosovo in 1389. This war is the battle of the Ottoman Empire, and the Serb czar Lazar died in this war. Of course, at the end of the war, a Serb aristocrat who surrendered killed the Ottoman Turkish coach Murad I. This is also the origin of the Serb myth "death assassination". The Serb's indomitable and undaunted spirit triggered a war in the future.

统治巴尔干三个世纪的塞族人不久就以“伟大的奥斯曼帝国的梦想”-奥斯曼土耳其遇到了疯狂的穆斯林。 )”。从1389年的科索沃战役开始。这场战争是奥斯曼帝国的战斗,塞族沙皇拉扎尔在这场战争中丧生。当然,在战争结束时,一名塞族贵族投降了这也是塞尔维亚神话“死亡暗杀”的起源,塞尔维亚人顽强不屈的精神引发了未来的战争。

Ottoman Turkey ruled Serbia for five centuries, but in the later period, with the help of Tsarist Russia, Serbia gradually recovered its vitality as an independent country. In fact, as an independent nation, the Serbs have never really been eliminated by the Ottomans. On the contrary, the Serb culture has countered the Ottomans. By the time the Kingdom of Serbia was established in 1882, there were already Ottoman regiments fighting for Serbia. In the first and second Balkan Wars in 1910, the Serbian army completely regained Kosovo and did not conquer more than half of the land.

奥斯曼土耳其统治塞尔维亚五个世纪,但在后来的时期,在沙皇俄国的帮助下,塞尔维亚逐渐恢复了作为一个独立国家的活力。实际上,作为一个独立国家,塞族人从未真正被奥斯曼帝国所消灭。相反,塞族文化反抗了奥斯曼帝国。到1882年建立塞尔维亚王国时,已经有奥斯曼帝国军队为塞尔维亚而战。在1910年的第一次和第二次巴尔干战争中,塞尔维亚军队完全夺回了科索沃,没有征服超过一半的土地。

"We only want our complete Serbia, we don't want other people's land and other people's country"

“我们只想要我们完整的塞尔维亚,我们不想要其他人的土地和其他国家”

But when they said this, they would not forget that Vojvodina, the great Serb territory, is still in the hands of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and is oppressed by the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

但是,当他们这样说时,他们不会忘记塞尔维亚大领土伏伊伏丁那仍在奥匈帝国手中,并受到奥匈帝国的压迫。

As the Serbian national anthem is written, the land and people of Serbia will always be tightly united. No Serb citizen can watch Vojvodina become a child of another family like this.

在写塞尔维亚国歌时,塞尔维亚的土地和人民将永远紧密地团结在一起。没有一个塞尔维亚公民能看到伏伊伏丁那成为这样另一个家庭的孩子。

On June 28, 1914, Serbian patriotic young Principe armed with a Browning automatic pistol, fired seven consecutive shots and killed the Austro-Hungarian Crown Prince Ferdinand. In his heart, he was only avenging for Vojvodina and Serbs. But what he could not think of was that the murderers in the upper Austro-Hungarian Empire had already sharpened their swords and waited for an excuse to wait for their bloody desires.

1914年6月28日,塞尔维亚爱国青年普林西比手持勃朗宁自动手枪,连续开了欧宝app七枪,杀死了奥匈帝国亲王费迪南德。在他的心中,他只是为伏伊伏丁那和塞族人报仇。但是他想不到的是,奥匈帝国上层的凶手已经磨练了剑,并等待借口等待他们的流血欲望。

Alliance·From Unbreakable to Breaking

联盟·从坚不可摧

Throughout 1914, the Austro-Hungarian Empire did not take advantage of Serbia. The Franz dynasty dispatched troops and generals, but they suffered three defeats in Serbia that shook the country. As the saying goes, "If you can't beat it, you will be called a man", so Germany and Bulgaria joined the war in 1915 without shame. In 1915, the Allied forces occupied the entire territory of Serbia, and the Serbs destroyed the country three times.

在整个1914年,奥匈帝国没有利用塞尔维亚。弗朗茨(Franz)王朝出动了部队和将军,但他们在塞尔维亚遭受了三败,震惊了整个国家。俗话说:“如果你不能打败它,你就会被称为一个男人”,因此德国和保加利亚在1915年参战没有丢脸。 1915年,盟军占领了塞尔维亚的整个领土,塞尔维亚人三度摧毁了该国。

Of course, as the saying goes, justice will prevail and the people will prevail. In 1918, the Allied powers were finally defeated, and many Balkan countries formed an alliance, which later formed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. This is the first major integration of Slavic countries. The Serbs are of course happy to see it, and Serb politicians have also worked hard to promote the alliance. But they never expected that this alliance...

俗话说,正义必胜,人民必胜。 1918年,同盟国最终被击败,许多巴尔干国家结成同盟,后来组成了南斯拉夫王国。这是斯拉夫国家的第一次重大融合。塞族当然很高兴看到它,塞族政客也为促进该联盟而努力。但是他们从未期望过这个联盟...

On December 1, 1918, King Peter I of the Kingdom of Serbia announced the establishment of the Serbian, Croat and Slovenian Kingdoms. This kingdom includes the previously independent kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro, as well as large areas of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. These territories include Caniola, which belonged to the Austrian Empire, most of Styria and Dalmatia, and Croatia, Slavonia, and Vojvo Dinar, as well as Bosnia and Herzegovina, a province directly under the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

1918年12月1日,塞尔维亚王国国王彼得一世宣布建立塞尔维亚,克罗地亚和斯洛文尼亚王国。这个王国包括先前独立的塞尔维亚和黑山王国,以及奥匈帝国的大部分地区。这些领土包括卡尼奥拉(属于奥地利帝国,施蒂利亚州和达尔马提亚的大部分地区),克罗地亚,斯拉沃尼亚和伏伊伏丁那(Vojvo Dinar),以及波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那(奥匈帝国的直属省)。

The Kingdom of Yugoslavia is a constitutional monarchy, but it also has the flavor of a split multi-party system. At the beginning of the alliance, there was a large-scale conflict between the governments of many countries and the emperor because of the choice of prime minister. This is also known as the "first government crisis." And then the drawbacks of this kind of split multiparty system appeared again-Prime Minister Protic was the leader of the Radical Party, while Lyubómir Davidovic led the Democratic Party and implemented a highly centralized policy, which caused some Croatian representatives to turn to the opposition. However, the Radical Party had only three ministers, as opposed to the eleven of the Democratic Party. As a result, Protic resigned on August 16, 1919. Davidovich then formed a ruling coalition with the Social Democratic Party. The new government did not obtain a majority, but the minimum number required by the temporary representation system was half of the deputies plus one vote, and the opposition boycotted the parliament. The government was not sure that all supporters would attend the meeting, and the meeting failed. Davidovic resigned immediately, but no one could organize the government, so he became prime minister again. The opposition continues to boycott the government, and the government can only govern the country with emergency laws. The opposition condemned the government and established a parliamentary community, expressing firm support for the parliamentary system. It was difficult for Davidovic to support the overall situation, and he asked the king to immediately elect the Constituent Assembly, but failed to resign.

南斯拉夫王国是君主立宪制,但它也具有分裂的多党制。联盟开始之初,由于总理的选择,许多国家的政府与皇帝之间发生了大规模的冲突。这也被称为“第一次政府危机”。然后,这种分裂的多党制的弊端再次出现:总理普罗蒂奇(Protic)担任激进党的领导人,而柳博米尔(LyubómirDavidovic)领导民主党并实施了高度集中的政策,这导致一些克罗地亚代表转向反对派。但是,激进党只有三名部长,而民主党只有十一名。结果,Protic于1919年8月16日辞职。Davidovich随后与社会民主党组成了执政联盟。新政府没有获得多数席位,但是临时代表制要求的最低人数为代表的一半加上一票,反对派抵制了议会。政府不确定所有支持者都参加会议,但会议失败。戴维诺维奇立即辞职,但没人能组织政府,因此他再次出任总理。反对派继续抵制政府,政府只能通过紧急法治国家。反对派谴责政府并建立了议会团体,对议会制度表示坚定支持。 Davidovic很难支持大局,他要求国王立即选举制宪议会,但未能辞职。

(Protic)

(质子)

The previous version of Serbia’s history textbook described this history in this way—nomination, appointment, resignation, endless loop. Quite a bit of British comics. Just such an alliance is not like a federation or a confederation. When united, it is better than a one-party superiority system, but when it is split, it is even more scattered than the confederate system.

塞尔维亚历史教科书的先前版本以这种方式描述了这一历史-提名,任命,辞职,无休止的循环。相当多的英国漫画。只是这样的联盟不像联邦或联盟。如果联合起来,它比一党制的优势系统要好,但是当分裂时,它比同盟的体系更加分散。

It was precisely from the partisan struggle we mentioned earlier that Kersey’s political conflicts began to intensify rapidly. There is a saying in Serbia that "eggs that are not in a basket will not break." The Croatian Democratic Party and the Serbian Radical Party in a basket have thus started an endless struggle. The second struggle was due to the constitution-Serb politicians believed that they should be loyal to the emperor, but Croat politicians were afraid that Yugoslavia would become the next German empire after loyal to the emperor. In the end, Kosovo, who was still obedient at the time, voted in favor, and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia "passed loyalty to the emperor with one vote." This bill’s changes are much more complicated than the French Sankyo Act.

正是从我们前面提到的党派斗争中,克西的政治冲突开始迅速加剧。塞尔维亚有一句俗语说:“没有放在篮子里的鸡蛋不会破裂。”因此,克罗地亚民主党和塞尔维亚激进党在篮子里进行了无休止的斗争。第二次斗争是由于宪法的缘故-塞族政治家们认为他们应该忠于皇帝,但是克罗地亚政客们担心南斯拉夫将在忠于皇帝之后成为下一个德国帝国。最后,当时仍然服从的科索沃投票赞成,南斯拉夫王国“以一票通过了对皇帝的忠诚”。该法案的修改要比《法国三共法案》复杂得多。

(Pasic)

(基本)

Serbian politicians believe that Serbia should unite the Yugoslav states, just like Piedmont that unified Italy and Prussia that unified Germany. At that time, Greater Serbia still controlled the entire Yugoslavia, and the decree could be regressed. But this led to Croatia becoming more and more resistant to the Serbian Center policy a few years after the establishment of the kingdom. The leader of the Croatian Peasant Party, Stjepan Radic, was imprisoned for political reasons. He was released and returned to Parliament in 1925.

塞尔维亚政客认为塞尔维亚应该团结南斯拉夫各州,就像皮埃蒙特统一意大利和普鲁士统一德国一样。当时,大塞尔维亚仍控制着整个南斯拉夫,该法令可以撤销。但是,这导致克罗地亚在建立王国后的几年越来越抵制塞尔维亚中心的政策。克罗地亚农民党领袖斯特杰潘·拉迪奇(Stjepan Radic)由于政治原因而被监禁。他于1925年获释并返回议会。

In the late 1930s, the Serbs and Croats planned to establish racially divided federal administrative regions, and the internal situation became more tense. The former wants Macedonia, Vojvodina, Montenegro and Serbia to merge, while Croatia wants to merge with Dalmatia and part of Vojvodina. As for Bosnia and Herzegovina, which has a majority of Bosnian Muslims, both parties claim their sovereignty. At that time, Nazi Germany rapidly expanded its territory and changed the situation. In 1939, Prince Paul appointed Dragisa Cvetkovic as prime minister, hoping to reach an agreement with Croatia. Then, on August 26, Marchek became Deputy Prime Minister. On the same day, the Croatian Province was established, with an independent parliament. The territory includes present-day Croatia and northwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina. So the local Serbs became a minority, and Ustasha also jumped out at this time-Ustasha was also dissatisfied with the distribution of territory, thinking that Croatia should have the entire territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

在1930年代后期,塞尔维亚人和克罗地亚人计划建立种族划分的联邦行政区,内部局势变得更加紧张。前者希望马其顿,伏伊伏丁那,黑山和塞尔维亚合并,而克罗地亚希望与达尔马提亚和伏伊伏丁那的一部分合并。至于拥有多数波斯尼亚穆斯林的波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那,双方都宣称拥有主权。当时,纳粹德国迅速扩大了领土,改变了局势。 1939年,保罗亲王任命德拉吉萨·科维奇科维奇为总理,希望与克罗地亚达成协议。然后,8月26日,马尔凯克成为副总理。同一天,克罗地亚省成立,并设有独立议会。该领土包括当今的克罗地亚和西北波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那。因此当地的塞族人成为少数,此时乌斯塔沙(Ustasha)也跳了出来,乌斯塔沙(Ustasha)对领土的分布也不满意,认为克罗地亚应该拥有波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那的整个领土。

The contradiction is intensifying.

矛盾在加剧。

In 1939, World War II broke out. This time the war has changed from a European war to a world war. The war is no longer a sprinkling gadget like unrestricted submarine warfare, but a complete retreat of Dunkirk and General Patton's advance in a thousand miles. Super large-scale war. When the war progressed to the stalemate stage, the ruling class of the Southern Kingdom, accustomed to pampering themselves, failed to maintain their integrity after all. In 1941, Prince Paul signed the infamous "Three Kingdoms Pact" on behalf of the Southern Kingdom and declared appeasement. This triggered almost crazy anger among Serb citizens, which represented the fragmentation of the Great Serbia dream. In the same month, Serb students set off a 100,000 demonstration in Belgrade. With the help of the British, the 18-year-old Peter II overthrew Prince Paul. His coming to power was once regarded as a "civilian victory" and "a Slavs victory", but in the end everyone discovered that this was just a victory for the Great Empire and had nothing to do with Yugoslavia.

1939年,第二次世界大战爆发。这次战争从欧洲战争变成了世界大战。这场战争不再像无限制的海底战争那样扑朔迷离,而是完全撤退了敦刻尔克(Dunkirk)和巴顿将军的前进1000英里。超级大战。当战争发展到僵局时,习惯宠爱自己的南方王国统治阶级终究无法保持自己的完整。 1941年,保罗亲王代表南方王国签署了臭名昭著的“三个王国条约”,并宣布app靖。这引起了塞尔维亚公民之间几乎疯狂的愤怒,这代表了大塞尔维亚梦的破碎。同月,塞族学生在贝尔格莱德掀起了10万示威游行。 18岁的彼得二世在英国人的帮助下推翻了保罗王子。他的上台曾经被认为是“平民胜利”和“斯拉夫人胜利”,但最终每个人都发现这只是大帝国的胜利,与南斯拉夫无关。

This Peter II did almost nothing. When foreign troops entered Yugoslavia, he ran faster than anyone else.

彼得二世几乎什么也没做。当外国部队进入南斯拉夫时,他跑得比其他任何人都快。

Soon after, General Milan Redic established a Serbian puppet government, respecting Peter II as Emperor. At this time Redditch was still very excited-he finally became the head of the government, but he didn't know that the hearts of the people at this time had already been robbed by another person.

不久之后,米兰·雷迪奇将军建立了一个塞尔维亚伪政府,尊重彼得二世为皇帝。这时雷迪奇仍然很兴奋-他最终成为政府首脑,但他不知道此时此刻人们的心已经被另一个人抢走了。

In 1919, several social democratic parties of Yugoslavia convened a unified congress in Belgrade and established the Socialist Workers' Party of Yugoslavia. The new party decided to join the Communist International. In 1920, the second party congress was held in Vukovar and was renamed the Communist Party of Yugoslavia. In 1921, the party was declared illegal by the Royal Government of Yugoslavia and moved into underground activities. In 1937 Tito was appointed by the Communist International as the temporary general secretary of the Yugoslav Communist Party. After the outbreak of World War II, the Communist Party of Yugoslavia did not actually participate in the war against Germany due to the influence of the Soviet-German agreement. Before 1940, it even participated in anti-war activities.

1919年,南斯拉夫的几个社会民主党在贝尔格莱德召开了一次统一代表大会,并成立了南斯拉夫社会主义工人党。新党决定加入共产国际。 1920年,第二届党代会在武科瓦尔举行,并更名为南斯拉夫共产党。 1921年,该党被南斯拉夫王国政府宣布为非法,并进入地下活动。 1937年,铁托被共产国际任命为南斯拉夫共产党的临时秘书长。第二次世界大战爆发后,由于苏德协议的影响,南斯拉夫共产党实际上没有参加对德国的战争。 1940年之前,它甚至参加了反战活动。

The turning point was in the Fifth National Congress of the South Communist Party in 1937. Stalin chose a Croat to form the South Communist Party. He was Joseph Broz Tito.

转折点是在1937年的南方共产党第五次全国代表大会上。斯大林选择了克罗地亚人来组建南方共产党。他是约瑟夫·布罗兹·铁托(Joseph Broz Tito)。

In the Balkans, Tito actively led the guerrillas to kill the invaders. He took the lead and was a "great communist fighter, a pioneering death squad" and "an image symbol of the Slavs." After the establishment of the Yugoslavian League after World War II, Tito ruled the country with Titoism: he advocated the use of a milder decentralization model to govern the country. Americans believed that Titoism is a more stable and free political theory system than other socialist countries. Ideology of communism.

在巴尔干半岛,铁托积极领导游击队杀死了入侵者。他带头成为“伟大的共产主义战士,开创性的敢死队”和“斯拉夫人的形象象征”。第二次世界大战后南斯拉夫联盟成立后,铁托以铁托主义统治了该国:他主张使用较为温和的权力下放模式来统治该国。美国人认为,铁托主义是比其他社会主义国家更为稳定和自由的政治理论体系。共产主义意识形态。

Tito believes that the guidelines and policies adopted in each country to achieve the ultimate goal of communism must be different from other countries based on the unique conditions of this country. In Tito's time, this meant that the pursuit of communism should be independent of (and often opposed to) the policies of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. This goal led Tito to support the existence of Israel and the establishment of the State of Israel, unlike the Soviet Union.

铁托认为,每个国家为实现共产主义的最终目标而采取的指导方针和政策都必须根据该国的独特条件与其他国家有所不同。在铁托时代,这意味着追求共产主义应该独立于(并且经常反对)苏维埃社会主义共和国联盟的政策。与苏联不同,这一目标导致铁托支持以色列的存在和以色列国的建立。

This is not socialism.

这不是社会主义。

It is precisely because of this that the so-called Titoism can only be applied in the "big Tito era", because it completely relies on Tito's strong personal appeal, and everyone is convinced by Tito. And when such a co-lord of the eternal line left the world to meet Marx in 1980, there were no politicians in this world to believe in the theories left by Tito. Of course, this has something to do with the "peaceful evolution" that the United States has always admired, and Titoism does not like to suppress cultural criticism...

正因为如此,所谓的铁托主义只能应用在“大铁托时代”,因为它完全依靠铁托的强烈个人吸引力,并且每个人都对铁托深信不疑。当这种永恒路线的同伴在1980年离开世界与马克思见面时,这个世界上没有政治家相信铁托留下的理论。当然,这与美国一向仰慕的“和平演变”有关,铁托主义并不喜欢压制文化批评。

So Yugoslavia was worse than the SSSR at the map head in the later period. Ge map, Ye Siguo, iron authority, three totems.

因此,在以后的地图上,南斯拉夫比苏联还要糟糕。戈图,特斯戈,铁权威,三个图腾。

Tito died without a designated heir in 1980. Democratization was also promoted in the Soviet Union under the guidance of Gorbachev. Onnack of East Germany, Zhivkov of Bulgaria and Husak of Czechoslovakia They were forced to step down due to large-scale reforms. Among them, Romania directly executed the great dictator Ceausescu. Yugoslavia also abolished the one-party dictatorship of the Communist Party and decided to implement free elections. The countries that make up Yugoslavia have begun to prepare to leave Yugoslavia. . At this time, nationalists such as Serbia’s Milosevic began to take power. As the leader of Serbia, the center of Yugoslavia, Milosevic proclaimed Greater Serbia and forcibly forced the Albanian Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo. The abolition of the autonomy power of Kosovo triggered Kosovo’s declaration of independence in July 1990. Since then, successive civil wars have begun in Yugoslavia.

铁托在1980年去世,没有指定的继承人。在戈尔巴乔夫的领导下,苏联也促进了民主化。东德的昂纳克,保加利亚的日夫科夫和捷克斯洛伐克的胡萨克由于大规模的改革而被迫下台。其中,罗马尼亚直接处决了大独裁者齐奥塞斯库。南斯拉夫还废除了共产党的一党专政,并决定实行自由选举。组成南斯拉夫的国家已开始准备离开南斯拉夫。 。这时,塞尔维亚的米洛舍维奇(Milosevic)等民族主义者开始掌权。作为南斯拉夫中部塞尔维亚的领导人,米洛舍维奇宣布大塞尔维亚,并强行迫使阿尔巴尼亚社会主义自治省科索沃。 1990年7月,科索沃自治权的取消引发了科索沃宣布独立。此后,南斯拉夫开始了连续的内欧宝app战。

On June 25, 1991, Slovenia and Croatia declared their independence at the same time. In view of the fact that the two countries have started their independence, the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina also embarked on the road to seceding from the Federation. On September 8, 1991, the Republic of Macedonia held a referendum on independence, in which 95% of voters favored Macedonia’s independence from the Yugoslavia. On November 20, Macedonia promulgated a new constitution, officially declaring independence. Macedonia's independence is the first time that the United States has directly stepped down to guide the countries of the Yugoslavia to separate from the Yugoslavia. With the help of the European Union and the United States, Macedonia became independent peacefully. The previous independence was done under the guidance of American NGOs.

1991年6月25日,斯洛文尼亚和克罗地亚同时宣布独立。鉴于两国已经开始独立,波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那政府也走上了脱离联邦的道路。 1991年9月8日,马其顿共和国举行了关于独立的全民投票,其中95%的选民赞成马其顿脱离南斯拉夫的独立。 11月20日,马其顿颁布了新宪法,正式宣布独立。马其顿的独立是美国首次直接下台以指导南斯拉夫各国脱离南斯拉夫的独立。在欧洲联盟和美国的帮助下,马其顿和平独立。先前的独立是在美国非政府组织的指导下完成的。

On December 1, the five countries of Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Italy, and Poland announced in Venice that “the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia no longer exists”. This day was recorded in the Serbian history textbook as a “day of shame”. Countries that have not joined the Yugoslavian Federation declare their understanding. Regarding this result, the Serbs obviously did not admit it. They and Montenegro formed the dualistic country Serbia and Montenegro, which became the orthodox successor of the FRY. However, the United Nations dominated by a certain country does not want Tito’s last dream to remain in the Balkans. On September 22, 1992, at the United Nations General Assembly, Yugoslavia was expelled by the United Nations.

12月1日,奥地利,捷克斯洛伐克,匈牙利,意大利和波兰这五个国家在威尼斯宣布“南斯拉夫联盟共和国已不存在”。这一天在塞尔维亚历史教科书中被记录为“羞耻的一天”。尚未加入南斯拉夫联盟的国家宣布其谅解。关于这一结果,塞族人显然不同意。他们和黑山组成了二元国家塞尔维亚和黑山,成为南联盟的正统继承者。但是,由某个国家控制的联合国不希望铁托的最后梦想留在巴尔干地区。 1992年9月22日,在联合国大会上,南斯拉夫被联合国开除。

Within a few years, Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence. But according to Obama's words, "this time the results are not ideal" because a Serb Republic entity is still retained and Bosnia and Herzegovina cannot do anything about it. Soon, Kosovo sought independence. This time, the Americans, Western Europeans, NATOs, Westerners, and capitalists are determined not to allow the Serbian Republic to happen again. They must completely dismantle Serbia and completely divide the Serbs into N, even though from AD Kosovo was Serbia欧宝app’s inherent territory in the sixth century.

几年之内,波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那宣布独立。但是按照奥巴马的话来说,“这次的结果并不理想”,因为仍然保留着一个塞族共和国实体,波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那对此无能为力。不久,科索沃寻求独立。这次,美国人,西欧人,北约,西方人和资本家决心不让塞尔维亚共和国再次发生。他们必须彻底拆除塞尔维亚,并将塞族人完全分割为N国,尽管公元6世纪以来,科索沃是塞尔维亚的固有领土。

An unnamed official of the U.S. Human Rights Council once said in an interview with the Russian newspaper, "The Serbs are worthless in the eyes of human rights."

美国人权理事会的一位不愿透露姓名的官员曾在接受俄罗斯报纸采访时说:“在人权看来,塞族人一文不值。”

In 1990, Kosovo

1990年,科索沃

On March 23, 1999, the US Balkan envoy Richard Hobrook announced the failure of the so-called Rambouillet agreement peace negotiations. The Clinton administration announced that it would no longer carry out any diplomatic efforts and carry out indiscriminate air strikes against Yugoslavia. The 78-day nightmare began, a nightmare that the Serbs had never thought of began. Thousands of years ago, they used swords and guns to drive away the Bulgarian invaders and establish a Serb state, but this time they were helpless in the face of threats from the sky. NATO has carried out 24-hour non-stop bombing of all military targets in the Yugoslavia. It also bombed Yugoslavia’s civilian facilities such as bridges, railways, highways, factories, television stations, communication systems, and power systems. At that time, a comment on Russian television pointed out that the policy of the Clinton administration was to stop fighting and dissatisfied, until the country is subjugated and the clan is destroyed. Up to now, the United States still does not recognize that they have carried out a "genocidal strike" against the Serbs (with the Nickridge government), but the Americans have instead accused Milosevic of "carrying out a brutal genocide against Kosovo."

1999年3月23日,美国巴尔干特使理查德·霍布鲁克(Richard Hobrook)宣布所谓的朗布依埃协议和平谈判失败。克林顿政府宣布将不再进行任何外交努力,也不会对南斯拉夫进行不分青红皂白的空袭。 78天的噩梦开始了,塞尔维亚人从未想过的噩梦开始了。几千年前,他们用剑和枪将保加利亚侵略者赶走,建立了塞族国家,但这次,他们面对天空的威胁却束手无策。北约对南斯拉夫的所有军事目标进行了24小时不间断轰炸。它还轰炸了南斯拉夫的民用设施,例如桥梁,铁路,公路,工厂,电视台,通信系统和电力系统。当时,俄罗斯电视台的一则评论指出,克林顿政府的政策是停止战斗和不满,直到该国被征服并且氏族被摧毁为止。到目前为止,美国仍然不承认他们(与尼克里奇政府)对塞族人进行了“种族灭绝打击”,但美国人却指控米洛舍维奇“对科索沃进行了残酷的种族灭绝”。

NATO launched 2,300 missiles at 990 targets and dropped 14,000 bombs including depleted uranium bombs and cluster bombs. More than 2,000 civilians were killed, including 88 children, and thousands were injured. More than 200,000 Serbs were forced to evacuate; Yugoslav officials said NATO airstrikes destroyed more than 300 schools, libraries and more than 20 hospitals. At least 40,000 houses were razed or damaged, and about 90 historical and architectural relics were damaged.

北约向990个目标发射了2,300枚导弹,投下了14,000枚炸弹,其中包括贫铀炸弹和集束炸弹。 2,000多名平民丧生,包括88名儿童,数千人受伤。 200,000多名塞族人被迫撤离;南斯拉夫官员说,北约的空袭摧毁了300多所学校,图书馆和20多家医院。至少有40,000所房屋被夷为平地或被破坏,大约90座历史和建筑文物被破坏。

The United Nations determined that Yugoslavia committed genocide against Kosovo.

联合国确定南斯拉夫对科索沃实施了种族灭绝。

During the Kosovo War in 1999, on the night of May 7, local time, and on May 8, Beijing time, NATO’s US B-2 bombers launched 5

在1999年科索沃战争期间,当地时间5月7日晚上和北京时间5月8日,北约的美国B-2轰炸机发射了5架

This incident aroused strong indignation from the Chinese people. The students of Peking University put up slogans not to take the TOEFL test (TOEFL) or not to take the postal test (GRE), and they would fight the American imperial wholeheartedly. Hong Kong citizens besieged the US office in Hong Kong for 36 hours. Even the citizens of Taiwan Province demanded that the Lee Teng-hui authorities "deport Americans in Taiwan, restore Chinese sovereignty, and combat imperialism."

这一事件引起了中国人民的强烈愤慨。北京大学的学生提出不参加托福考试(TOEFL)或不参加邮政考试(GRE)的口号,他们将全心全意地与美帝国主义搏斗。香港市民包围了美国驻香港办事处长达36个小时。甚至台湾省公民也要求李登辉当局“将美国人驱逐到台湾,恢复中国的主权,并打击帝国主义”。

In the end, Milosevic surrendered on behalf of the FRY. The Serbs think this is another destruction of the country.

最后,米洛舍维奇代表南联盟投降。塞尔维亚人认为这是对该国的另一次破坏。

More than 20 years have passed since the May 8th Incident, and it will be 21 years in May. In the past two decades, the Serbs have experienced ups and downs and the years have changed. First, the Yugoslav League finally became Serbia and Montenegro. In 2006, there was a division of Serbia and Montenegro, who was ridiculed by the short film "China won the World Cup". The Kersey dispute has not been resolved, and Kosovo representatives even appeared publicly at the UN General Assembly in the past few years The venue also borrowed the personal privileges of Americans to make a speech. Had it not been for the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China to always stand on the side of Serbia, Kosovo would have already become a member of the United Nations.

自5月8日事件以来已经过去了20多年,而到5月将是21年。在过去的二十年中,塞族人经历了起起伏伏,岁月也变了。首先,南斯拉夫联盟终于成为塞尔维亚和黑山。 2006年,塞尔维亚和黑山的分部被短片“中国赢得了世界杯”嘲笑。克尔西争端尚未解决,在过去的几年中,科索沃代表甚至在联合国大会上公开露面。该场馆还借用了美国人的个人特权来发表讲话。如果不是俄罗斯联邦和中华人民共和国总是站在塞尔维亚一边,科索沃就已经成欧宝app为联合国会员国。

The Serbian song "If We Are as Strong as China" once said that if we are as powerful as China, Serbia will be a big country. Greater Serbia has been their dream. Of course, they have to write a footnote to their dreams-even when they ruled the Balkans, they only radiated culture outwards, but did not do any military suppression. They only want the "land given to the Serbs by heaven" in the Bible and do not want to invade and occupy the "sacred territories of other countries."

塞尔维亚歌曲《如果我们像中国一样强大》曾经说过,如果我们像中国一样强大,塞尔维亚将是一个大国。大塞尔维亚一直是他们的梦想。当然,他们必须为自己的梦想写一个脚注-即使统治巴尔干半岛时,他们也只是向外传播文化,而没有进行任何军事镇压。他们只希望圣经中的“天堂赐予塞族的土地”,而不希望入侵和占领“其他国家的神圣领土”。

This is Serbia, China's ironiest buddy in Europe; this is Serbia, the ironiest brother of the Chinese nation in Europe.

这是塞尔维亚,中国在欧洲最讽刺的伙伴。这是塞尔维亚,是欧洲中华民族最讽刺欧宝app下载地址的兄弟。

This article may not be objective, because it was written by a non-professional historian in mainland China. I consider myself an ordinary fan, and occasionally shout "Football Ruler" in the MUN conferences, that's all.

本文可能不是客观的,因为它是由中国大陆的非专业历史学家撰写的。我认为自己是普通粉丝,偶尔在MUN会议上大喊“足球标尺”,仅此而已。

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First statement: This article refers to a total of 79 from the Nemanya Dynasty to Serbia

第一句话:本文指的是从Nemanya王朝到塞尔维亚的共79条

The reference material is very long, you can slide into the comment area when you see it here. In good faith, list all reference materials.

参考资料很长,您可以在此处看到它时将其滑入注释区域。真诚地列出所有参考资料。

Georg Wildmann, 2004.11, “The AVNOJ Resolution of November 21, 1944 - Sealing of the Fate of the German Yugoslavia”

乔治·怀尔德曼(Georg Wildmann),2004.11,“ 1944年11月21日AVNOJ决议-封印德国南斯拉夫的命运”

Jiang Bingyi, 2007, "Borders of Yugoslavia and Ethnic Conflicts (1991-2006)", Master's thesis, Department of Political Science, Donghai University

姜炳义,2007,“南斯拉夫与民族冲突的边界(1991-2006)”,东海大学政治学系硕士论文

The events Surrounding the Battle of Kosovo 1389 and its cultural effect on the Serbian people by Mark Gottfried

马克·戈特弗里德(Mark Gottfried)1389年科索沃战役周围的事件及其对塞尔维亚人民的文化影响

The Battle of Kosovo: Early Reports of Victory and Defeat by Thomas Emmert

科索沃战役:托马斯·埃默特(Thomas Emmert)关于胜利与失败的早期报道

The Kosovo Legacy by Thomas Emmert

Thomas Emmert的科索沃遗产

The Battle of Kosovo Serbian Epic Poems edited by Charles Simic

查尔斯·西米奇(Charles Simic)编辑的科索沃塞尔维亚史诗之战

Wu Zhenzheng, Research on the Democratization Process of Yugoslavia, Institute of European Studies, Tamkang University, 1992

吴振正,南斯拉夫民主化进程研究,淡江大学欧洲研究所,1992年

Li Haowei, Theory and Empirical Study of Ethnic Conflict: The Disintegration of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as an Example, Institute of European Studies, Tamkang University, 2006

李浩威,《民族冲突的理论与实证研究:以南斯拉夫联盟共和国的瓦解为例》,淡江大学欧洲研究所,2006年

Ma Xipu. The rise and fall of Yugoslavia. Social Science Archives. 2010. ISBN 978-7-5097-1140-8.

马希普南斯拉夫的兴衰。社会科学档案。 2010。ISBN978-7-5097-1140-8。

Football Weekly, 50 Years of European Cup, Sports Weekly: 64, 2008

足球周刊,欧洲杯50年,体育周刊:64、2008年

The song "If Serbia is as strong as China"-bilibili.com

歌曲“如果塞尔维亚像中国一样强大” -bilibili.com

1999: New wave of anti-American demonstrations and nationalism. Southern Metropolis Weekly. Southern Metropolis Weekly. 2008-07-18 [2009-12-03]

1999年:新一波反美示威和民族主义。南方都市报。南方都市报。 2008-07-18 [2009-12-03]

BBC: Nato's bombing blunders Detailed list of war victims

英国广播公司:北约的轰炸失误战争受害者的详细名单

"News Broadcast", May 12, 1999

“新闻广播”,1999年5月12日

News feature: Zhu Ying's father mourns his daughter-in-law. China Central Television. 1999-05-10

新闻特稿:朱英的父亲为儿his哀悼。中央电视台。 1999-05-10

Xinhua News Agency's short comment: When will NATO's "accidental mistakes" be closed. Xinhua News Agency. 1999-05-02

新华社的简短评论:北约的“偶然错误”何时结束。新华社。 1999-05-02

Strongly protest against NATO atrocities. People's Daily Online

强烈抗议北约暴行。人民日报在线

Byman, Daniel. L and Waxman, Mathew C. "Kosovo and the Great Air Power Debate". International Security

丹尼尔,拜曼。 L和Waxman,Mathew C.“科索沃与空中力量辩论”。国际安全

Krieger, Heike. The Kosovo Conflict and International Law: An Analytical Documentation 1974–1999. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2001. ISBN 978-0-521-80071-6

克里格,海克。科索沃冲突与国际法:1974–1999年分析文件。剑桥:剑桥大学出版社。 2001.ISBN 978-0-521-80071-6

Zen Chida (November 21, 2002). Why does war not end? Thinking about ethnicity, conflict, and international politics on the Yugo issue. Japan: Misuzu Shobo. ISBN 978-4-622-07014-6

Zen Chida(2002年11月21日)。为什么战争不会结束?关于南斯拉夫问题的种族,冲突和国际政治的思考。日本:Misuzu Shobo。 ISBN 978-4-622-07014-6

Audio clips: Traditional music of Serbia and Montenegro. Geneva Museum of Ethnography. Retrieved November 25, 2010

音频片段:塞尔维亚和黑山的传统音乐。日内瓦民族志博物馆。检索2010年11月25日

Zhang Zhihan, 2005.1, "Ethnic Conflict and Blood-related Intervention in the Post-Cold War Era", Master's thesis, Institute of Political Science, National Taiwan University

张志翰,2005.1,“冷战后的民族冲突与血液干预”,硕士论文,国立台湾大学政治学研究所

Edited by Zhao Naibin and Wang Limin, 2002.7, "The Changes in Yugoslavia"

赵乃彬和王立民主编,2002.7,“南斯拉夫的变化”

Translated by Xu Shounan, by Mihailo Crnobrnja, 1999, "Split Yugoslavia"

徐寿南译,Mihailo Crnobrnja,1999年,《南斯拉夫分裂》

The Constitutional Supervision System of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. [2012-09-23]

南斯拉夫联盟共和国的宪法监督制度。中国社会科学院。 [2012-09-23]

Pan Zhiping, National Self-determination or National Separatism-Nationality and Contemporary National Separatism, Xinjiang: Xinjiang People's Publishing House: 79, 1999

潘志平:《民族自决或民族分离-民族与当代民族分离》,新疆:新疆人民出版社:79,1999

At last

最后

The editor of this article believes that Wikipedia’s views and quoted materials are "more from Taiwan Province", so this article strives not to use the views used by Wikipedia, and not to use the terms provided by Wikipedia. More often, in comments and the results of the war, we quoted the United Russia, Russia Today, and Serbia’s domestic media, including mainland media and mainland works. The varieties are mixed, so I won't list them one by one.

本文的编辑认为,维基百科的观点和引用的材料“更多来自台湾省”,因此,本文力求不使用维基百科使用的观点,也不使用维基百科提供的术语。通常,在评论和战争结果中,我们引用了统一俄罗斯,今日俄罗斯和塞尔维亚的国内媒体,包括大陆媒体和大陆作品。品种是混合的,所以我不会一一列出。

 
 
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